Summary of findings: Time use studies consistently show that fathers, both resident and non-resident, are spending more time with their children, albeit still at a lower level than mothers. In dual full-time earner couples men spend about 75 per cent of women’s absolute time on childcare and other activities with dependent children. Studies assessing the impact of father involvement in the early years on later child outcomes confirm the importance of early paternal investment in caring. In dual earner families where mothers work full-time in the first year of children’s lives, increased father involvement can protect child welfare.

Report prepared by Margaret O’Brien, University of East Anglia [2005]. Copyright Equalities Commission 2005.

Download Report